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<br /> Spineless<br /> Status and trends of the<br /> world’s invertebrates<br /> Edited by Ben Collen, Monika Böhm,<br /> Rachael Kemp and Jonathan E. M. Baillie<br /> Spineless<br /> Status and trends of the<br /> world's invertebrates<br /> Edited by Ben Collen, Monika Böhm,<br /> Rachael Kemp and Jonathan E. M. Baillie<br /> Disclaimer<br /> The designation of the geographic entities<br /> in this report, and the presentation of the<br /> material, do not imply the expressions of any<br /> opinion on the part of ZSL, IUCN or Wildscreen<br /> concerning the legal status of any country,<br /> territory, area, or its authorities, or concerning<br /> the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.<br /> Citation<br /> Collen B, Böhm M, Kemp R & Baillie JEM (2012)<br /> Spineless: status and trends of the world's<br /> invertebrates. Zoological Society of London,<br /> United Kingdom<br /> ISBN<br /> 978-0-900881-68-8 Spineless: <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 1" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=1"> Spineless Status and trends of the world’s </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 2" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=2"> Spineless Status and trends of the world's</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 3" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=3"> Disclaimer The designation of the geographic enti</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 4" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=4"> Contents Foreword </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 5" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=5"> Foreword The unravelling underwor</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 6" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=6"> Preface Foundations of biodiversi</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 7" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=7"> Acknowledgements General The IUCN</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 8" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=8"> Executive summary This report con</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 9" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=9"> Regional invertebrate assessments have a</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 10" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=10"> 1 Hemipteran © George J. Reclos</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 11" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=11"> 10 | Spineless Status and trends of the world's i</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 12" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=12"> 1 The small things that run the world</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 13" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=13"> Chapter 1 The unravelling underworld Monika Böh</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 14" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=14"> Red-veined Darter (Sympetrum fonscolombii) © Geor</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 15" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=15"> Jumping spider (Habronattus hirsutus) © Lisa Tayl</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 16" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=16"> Shield bugs © George J. Reclos as the mostly t</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 17" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=17"> Invertebrate diversity as a regulator of ecosyste</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 18" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=18"> Polymita picta roseolimbata © Adrián González-Gui</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 19" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=19"> Figure 01 | Human population growth and projectio</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 20" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=20"> Hooded praying mantis © Trond Larsen the ecos</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 21" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=21"> Box 01 | The 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 22" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=22"> Scorpion © Trond Larsen Box 02 | Tracking the st</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 23" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=23"> References 1. Smith RJ, Verissimo D, Isaac NJB.</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 24" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=24"> German wasp (Vespula germanica) © George J. Reclo</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 25" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=25"> 24 | Spineless Status and trends of the world's i</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 26" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=26"> 2 Status and trends of invertebrates </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 27" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=27"> Chapter 2 Freshwater invertebrate life Will Dar</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 28" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=28"> Figure 02 | Global species richness and threatene</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 29" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=29"> Coenagrionidae xanthocnemis © Bryce McQuillan </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 30" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=30"> Figure 03 | IUCN Red List status of freshwater in</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 31" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=31"> Figure 05 | Global threats to freshwater inverteb</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 32" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=32"> high-quality pearls have been harvested by humans</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 33" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=33"> References 1. Dudgeon D, Arthington AH, Gessner</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 34" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=34"> Blue damselfly © Ben Andrew </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 35" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=35"> Chapter 3 Marine invertebrate life Rachael Kemp1</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 36" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=36"> Holthius's anemone shrimp (Ancylomenes holtuisi) </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 37" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=37"> Figure 03 | Global distribution of reef-building </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 38" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=38"> Mimic octopus (Thaumoctopus mimicus) © Barbara Mo</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 39" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=39"> Imperial shrimp riding nudibranch (Periclemenes i</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 40" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=40"> threat to 115 of the 247 comprehensively assessed</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 41" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=41"> Ecologically and economically important species M</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 42" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=42"> Red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus) Trond Larsen </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 43" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=43"> “Solar-powered” nudibranch (Phyllodesmium longici</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 44" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=44"> are hugely susceptible to negative impacts, speci</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 45" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=45"> References 1. Census of Marine Life (2012). The</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 46" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=46"> Crinoid © Trond Larsen | 45</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 47" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=47"> Chapter 4 Terrestrial invertebrate life Justin </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 48" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=48"> Diaea ambara © Bryce McQuillan </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 49" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=49"> Monarch butterfly © Martin D. Parr Molluscs F</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 50" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=50"> Mountain spotted grasshopper (Monistria concinna)</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 51" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=51"> degradation in species-rich areas of tropical Afr</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 52" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=52"> Forage Fouling $120 Million Parasitism $</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 53" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=53"> Phasmid © Michael Tweddle / Tweddlefoto.com 52</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 54" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=54"> Figure 06 | Global threats to terrestrial inverte</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 55" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=55"> Marsh flies (Sciomyzidae) © Bryce McQuillan </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 56" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=56"> (snails, woodlice and flightless insects) and lowe</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 57" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=57"> References 1. Mora C, Tittensor DP, Adl S, Simp</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 58" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=58"> Dung fly © Patrik Katona </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 59" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=59"> 58 | Spineless Status and trends of the world's i</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 60" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=60"> 3 Developing invertebrate conservation </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 61" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=61"> Chapter 5 Invertebrates: our natural capital Mel</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 62" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=62"> White-tailed bumblebee (Bombus lucorum) © Nick Up</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 63" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=63"> Afrithelphusa monodosa © Neil Cumberlidge oy</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 64" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=64"> Box 02 | National green accounting Economic prosp</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 65" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=65"> 435 137 431 854Figure 01 | Overview of the Red Li</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 66" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=66"> Honey bee (Apis melifera) © Michael Tweddle / Twe</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 67" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=67"> Figure 03 | Distribution patterns of each of the </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 68" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=68"> extremely sedentary and hardly ever leave the pat</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 69" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=69"> the continuity of traditional management systems </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 70" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=70"> Informing conservation action and guiding funding</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 71" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=71"> Figure 07 | Maps showing locations of 59 countrie</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 72" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=72"> Maybug (Melolontha melolontha) © Nick Upton / 202</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 73" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=73"> Chapter 6 Hidden in plain view: effective inverte</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 74" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=74"> Figure 01 | The different operational perspective</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 75" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=75"> Orb-weaver spider (Nephila sp.) © Trond Larsen </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 76" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=76"> Box 01 | Design and management principles for </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 77" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=77"> Grass-skipper © George J. Reclos 1. Inverteb</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 78" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=78"> Moth (Zygaena carniolica) © Marco Bertolini | </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 79" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=79"> © Photographer credit: Weaver ant</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 80" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=80"> Ladybirds © Brad Bushey Photography Selection</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 81" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=81"> Invertebrate conservation success Despite the com</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 82" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=82"> Phasmid © Michael Tweddle / Tweddlefoto.com of </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 83" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=83"> Nursery web spider (Pisaura mirabilis) © Nick Upt</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 84" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=84"> Photo 04 | Large-scale ecological networks are in</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 85" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=85"> References 1. Ponder, W. & Lunney, D. (1999). T</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 86" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=86"> Scarab beetle (Protaetia trojana syriaca) © Oz Ri</a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 87" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=87"> Tortoise beetle © www.neloy.in </a> <a title="Spineless - the status of the worlds invertebrates page 88" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/08e60ae3?page=88"> The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) The Zoolog</a>