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<br /> IFC JOBS STUDY<br /> ASSESSING PRIVATE SECTOR CONTRIBUTIONS<br /> TO JOB CREATION AND POVERTY REDUCTION<br /> JANUARY | 2013<br /> Preface<br /> This report is the result of an open-source study to assess the direct and indirect<br /> effects of private sector activity on job creation. The report examines how and under<br /> what conditions the private sector can best contribute to job creation and poverty<br /> reduction, drawing on a review of the literature and evaluations; surveys of more<br /> than 45,000 businesses in over 100 countries; a website, blog, and essay competition<br /> to solicit outside views; macro and micro case studies of IFC clients; and IFC’s own<br /> operational experience and lessons learned.<br /> The report aims to elicit practical lessons that can be applied to the work of IFC,<br /> policy- makers, and other financial institutions focused on the private sector.<br /> IFC, as the Iargest global development institution focused on the p<a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 1" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=1"> IFC JOBS STUDY ASSESSING PRIVATE SECTOR CONTRIBUT</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 2" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=2"> Preface This report is the result of an open-sou</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 3" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=3"> agribusiness sectors. Mahima Khanna and Govinda T</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 4" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=4"> MESSAGE FROM JIN-YONG CAI IFC Executiv</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 5" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=5"> TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: Setting the Sta</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 6" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=6"> CHAPTER 1 SETTING THE STAGE: WHY JOBS M</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 7" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=7"> Finally, the labor market is among the prominent </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 8" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=8"> which have the lowest rates (at about 4 percent; </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 9" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=9"> and job creation, it is fundamental to understand</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 10" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=10"> will be hiring workers as long as the value an ad</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 11" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=11"> If there is a mismatch between skills sought by t</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 12" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=12"> CHAPTER 2 HOW THE PRIVATE SECTOR CREATES JOBS </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 13" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=13"> 2. Small, medium, and large firms in devel</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 14" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=14"> Figure 2.2: Only in low-income countries do small</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 15" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=15"> Figure 2.3: Micro enterprises account for a great</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 16" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=16"> Figure 2.5: Larger firms pay higher wages kernel =</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 17" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=17"> In general the poorest regions of the world tend </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 18" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=18"> Figure 2.7 The service sector leads in the number</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 19" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=19"> Direct jobs provided by the sector often account </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 20" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=20"> Figure 2.8: A large fraction of firms are successf</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 21" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=21"> automation clearly made the production of any one</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 22" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=22"> 4.3 Innovation as a solution Technology can also </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 23" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=23"> References Alvarez, R., J. M. Benavente, R. Camp</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 24" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=24"> Endnotes 1 IFC launched the Development Outcom</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 25" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=25"> CHAPTER 3 ESTIMATING ECONOMY-WIDE JOB CREATION </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 26" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=26"> 2.1 Estimation of employment effects: Findings on</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 27" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=27"> the affected firms. This could translate into posi</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 28" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=28"> Together these may be linked to positive employme</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 29" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=29"> dollars of investment, or per number of direct jo</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 30" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=30"> incoming firms are not always a net new source of </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 31" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=31"> Table 3.1: Multipliers for indirect and induced j</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 32" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=32"> IFC Micro-Case Studies Summary Ecogreen: Ecogreen</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 33" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=33"> 5. Macro-case studies: Number of jobs created p</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 34" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=34"> Based on these tables, one can notice that this t</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 35" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=35"> and (ii) value added per $1 million invested, pre</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 36" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=36"> However, assessing “net” job creation effects is </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 37" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=37"> References Aroca, Patricio. 2001. “Impacts and d</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 38" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=38"> CHAPTER 4 MAJOR CONSTRAINTS FACING FIRMS Thi</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 39" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=39"> Yet the perception-based measurement and ranking </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 40" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=40"> 2. Top constraints by firm size, income group, sec</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 41" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=41"> 2.3 Constraints by country income group Consisten</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 42" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=42"> Figure 4.5a: Percentage of firms expressing access</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 43" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=43"> 4. Gr</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 44" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=44"> References Aterido, Reyes, Mary Hallward-Driemeie</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 45" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=45"> CHAPTER 5 INVESTMENT CLIMATE Summary A sound </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 46" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=46"> Table 5.1 Comprehensive investment climate reform</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 47" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=47"> This chapter is divided into three main sections:</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 48" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=48"> found that there was a 5 percent increase in the </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 49" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=49"> any new large store had to be first approved by a </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 50" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=50"> In Georgia, for example, 20 percent of small busi</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 51" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=51"> 1.3.3 FDI plays an important role in quantity and</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 52" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=52"> Box 5.4: Reforming secured transactions law helps</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 53" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=53"> 1.7 Trade logistics Faster, leaner, more efficient</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 54" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=54"> are significant.60 It is estimated that in 1975, t</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 55" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=55"> consistent with the country’s comparative and com</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 56" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=56"> </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 57" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=57"> Figure 5.7: Informal employment tends to be highe</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 58" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=58"> 3.3 Easing regulatory costs and constraints will </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 59" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=59"> Box 5.10: Experiment to move from informality to </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 60" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=60"> • Targeted investment climate reforms like SEZs </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 61" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=61"> Kompas, T., T. Che, H. Nguyen, and Q. Nguyen. 200</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 62" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=62"> 41 Development Counsellors International (2011).</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 63" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=63"> CHAPTER 6 ACCESS TO INFRASTRUCTURE Infrastru</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 64" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=64"> Box 6.1: Infrastructure can help create inclusive</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 65" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=65"> stimulates more investment in agriculture, which </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 66" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=66"> Both the LAC and MENA studies mentioned above foc</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 67" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=67"> sanitation. Infrastructure underpins women’s eco</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 68" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=68"> 1.6 Infrastructure sectors differ in their propen</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 69" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=69"> owned water operators often suffer from very poor</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 70" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=70"> greater access to power helps re- duce poverty no</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 71" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=71"> Box 6.3 Second-order employment effects of a powe</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 72" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=72"> also affects productivity, growth, employment, an</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 73" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=73"> because other inputs are less intensively used.63</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 74" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=74"> lems have emerged mainly due to political conflict</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 75" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=75"> The expansion of telecommunication technologies, </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 76" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=76"> more than 1 million people, most of them women. I</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 77" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=77"> References ADB. 2000. Impact Evaluation Study of </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 78" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=78"> Mwakapugi, Arthur, Samji Waheeda, and Sean Smith.</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 79" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=79"> 51 World Bank (2012a). </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 80" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=80"> CHAPTER 7 ACCESS TO FINANCE Private sector co</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 81" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=81"> relevant for job growth, so too is the distributi</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 82" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=82"> by firm size, concluding that SMEs rely less on ba</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 83" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=83"> 2. Lack of adequate a</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 84" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=84"> SMEs have intrinsic characteristics that can disc</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 85" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=85"> Box 7.2: Demand side constraints—the other side o</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 86" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=86"> Figure 7.4: Lack of access to finance for formal a</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 87" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=87"> • It assures liquidity, improves risk </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 88" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=88"> Women face disadvantages in entrepreneurship comp</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 89" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=89"> Employment creation via access to finance can have</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 90" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=90"> 3.3 Direct employment: Access to finance bolsters </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 91" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=91"> Box 7.6: Development financial institutions (Fls) </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 92" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=92"> and was transmitted to other sectors through shoc</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 93" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=93"> ILO analyzed whether disadvantaged groups (i.e., </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 94" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=94"> Box 7.8: Firms served by equity funds had high an</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 95" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=95"> focus should be on identifying those SMEs with th</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 96" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=96"> Bertrand, Marianne, Antoinette Schoar, and David </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 97" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=97"> 13 Ayyagari, Demirguc-Kunt, and Maksimovic (2011</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 98" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=98"> CHAPTER 8 TRAINING AND SKILLS There is a mism</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 99" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=99"> The mismatch can be attributed to many factors in</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 100" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=100"> When looking at regional differences, income disp</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 101" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=101"> The percentage of firms offering training to their</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 102" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=102"> Internationally recognized quality certification p</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 103" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=103"> Box 8.2: Impact of training and skill building pr</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 104" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=104"> 5.2 Active Labor Market Programs Retraining progr</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 105" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=105"> Box 8.3: Jordan New Opportunities for Women The J</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 106" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=106"> Because such clusters help establish a higher num</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 107" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=107"> Box 8.6: Effects from fast projects on jobs Afgha</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 108" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=108"> Chart 8.1: IFC’s education strategy for 2013-2015</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 109" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=109"> 8. Dual vocational training systems that co</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 110" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=110"> Switzerland’s case: Switzerland is another countr</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 111" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=111"> 10. Different f</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 112" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=112"> 11. Youth employment Box 8.9: Youth and the labo</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 113" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=113"> Comprehensive approach and private sector involve</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 114" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=114"> </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 115" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=115"> Workers in informal businesses also need training</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 116" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=116"> ILO. 2005. “Resolution concerning youth employmen</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 117" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=117"> Endnotes 1 McKinsey Global Institute (2012). </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 118" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=118"> CHAPTER 9 GENDER Worldwide, education levels</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 119" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=119"> So it becomes clear that a discussion about full </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 120" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=120"> example: if 2 million of the region’s highly educ</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 121" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=121"> Figure 9.2: Women’s employment by region: IFC por</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 122" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=122"> 4. Constraints: Obstacles and opportun</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 123" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=123"> Figure 9.3: When there is greater legal different</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 124" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=124"> Labor market participation of women between 15 to</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 125" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=125"> rica and Sub-Saharan Africa, and the widest gaps </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 126" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=126"> mandated targets for board representation, and ei</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 127" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=127"> Nalt Enterprises, an export garment factory in Vi</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 128" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=128"> 6.3 Help women access finance Globally, women-owne</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 129" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=129"> Recommendations for IFC and other development fina</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 130" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=130"> References Anglogold Ashanti. 2007. “Case Study: </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 131" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=131"> Endnotes 1 ILO (2010). </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 132" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=132"> CHAPTER 10 CHAPTER 10 QUA</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 133" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=133"> When it comes to defining and creating good jobs, </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 134" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=134"> 1.1 IFC’s Performance Standard 2 on Labor and Wor</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 135" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=135"> 1.2 Successful incorporation of PS2 requirements:</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 136" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=136"> There has been a noticeable shift in the past dec</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 137" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=137"> 4.1 At the industry level: The ILO –IFC Better Wo</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 138" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=138"> Surveyed factories reported innova- tions in prod</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 139" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=139"> A good understanding of intended beneficiaries is </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 140" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=140"> Recommendations for the private sector • Improve </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 141" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=141"> Ritter, J.A. and R. Anker. 2002. “Good jobs, bad </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 142" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=142"> CHAPTER 11 CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 143" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=143"> The report explored the issue of informality, bec</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 144" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=144"> 3. Jobs and</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 145" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=145"> • Firm size matters. As countries become richer,</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 146" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=146"> • Strengthening the link between clie</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 147" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=147"> Endnotes 1 World Bank Group (2012). 2 Bloom, </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 148" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=148"> STATEMENT BY MEMBERS OF THE IFC JOBS STUDY </a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 149" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=149"> 147</a> <a title="IFC_FULL JOB REPORT_REV2_JYC page 150" href="http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/f841d6ef?page=150"> International Finance Corporation 2121 Pennsylvan</a>